Actual recommendations on diagnosis and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents (part one)
Pediatr Med rodz Vol 4 Numer 3, p. 147-153
Hypertension is one of the commonest diseases. High blood pressure and its complications are most important elements of cardiovascular risk. Positive correlation between morbidity, mortality and hypertension in adults is apparent. Early start of the disease worsens future prognosis. There are two forms of arterial hypertension: primary and secondary, the latter observed in the course of much pathology. In adults we have to do mostly with primary form of the disease. Up until recently we thought, that high blood pressure in children occurs less commonly and that it is present mostly in its secondary form. Lately, with the progress in diagnostic tools and popularisation of blood pressure measurements as a part of paediatric examination, it becomes apparent, that primary hypertension in adolescents occurs frequently and can be diagnosed even in small children. It is important to establish clear rules concerning detection, evaluation and management of high blood pressure in this age group. Periodically American authors publish reports describing that important problem. The latest report was published in August 2004 edition of “Pediatrics”.The report sets out the current canon of rules and forms the basis of this article.
Keywords: hypertension, children, adolescents, diagnosis, treatmentDOWNLOAD ARTICLE (PDF)
Allergic rhinitis diagnosis and treatment
Pediatr Med rodz Vol 4 numer 3, p. 154-158
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common allergic disease in the world. Frequently it coexists with other allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic conjunctivitis or allergic dermatitis. It is inflammatory disease with immunological background, and it is caused by IgE-dependent reaction of the nasal mucous membrane to allergen.If time of symptoms duration is taken into account AR can be classified into intermittent or perennial, and severity of symptoms classifies it into mild or moderate/severe. Allergic rhinitis is a disease that depends of many factors. Interactions of environmental and genetic factors are responsible for its development. Environmental factors include airborne outdoor and indoor allergens (pollen, mold spores, house dust mites, animals fur and dander, insects), occupational allergens and atmospheric air pollution. Genetic factors are atopy and particular genetic polymorphisms coexistence. Symptoms of AR are itching, sneezing, clear nasal discharge, nasal congestion and loss of smell ability. Recognition of AR bases on compliance of symptoms and results of skin prick tests or the presence of specific IgE antibodies in blood. Assessment of amount of total IgE is not helpful in diagnostic process, while nasal provocation tests are more useful in scientific researches than clinical practice. Therapeutic process consists of patients education, exposure to allergens reduction, pharmacological treatment and specific immunotherapy. In pharmacological treatment are used systemic or topical antihistamine drugs, systemic or topical glucocorticoids, topical decongestants, montelukast, cromo - glicas, and ipratropium bromide. Specific immunotherapy is indicated in selected groups of patients and it influences natural history of allergic diseases.
Keywords: allergic rhinitis, allergens, mediators of inflammatory reaction, prick tests, specific IgEDOWNLOAD ARTICLE (PDF)
The obesity influence on the pathogenesis of allergic diseases
PediaTr Med rodz Vol 4 Numer 3, p. 159-163
During the recent years there is a rise in prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases. Simultaneously the number of overweight patients with increased value of body mass index (BMI) rises. It seems that although pathomechanisms of asthma and obesity are different, there is a common pathogenic link in development of these diseases. The influences of environmental, dietary, genetic and infectious factors are taken under consideration. Most epidemiological surveys confirm connection between overweight, obesity and risk of asthma at children and adults. The influence of high birth weight and higher gains of body mass during the first year of life is frequently highlighted. In contrast the risk of allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis is in negative correlation with body mass. No relation is observed between obesity and allergic dermatitis prevalence. Adipose tissue as an endocrinous organ produces number of cytokines, hormones, and growth factors. It is a source of proinflammatory factors such as: IL-6, TNF-a, TGF-b, leptin, resistin. Adipocytes produce leptin which level stays in positive correlation with adipose tissue mass. Leptin can exacerbate inflammatory process and probably plays an important role in development of lungs. Higher serum level of leptin is considered as a prognostic factor of asthma evolution. Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory abilities and its level is decreased in obesity. There is a negative correlation between concentration of adiponectin and BMI. Also resistin, aP2 protein, and female sex hormones take part in development of asthma in obese patients. Influence of genetic factors is still not well known. Since now there were isolated four chromosomic regions, which had connection with higher susceptibility for both: obesity and asthma. Protective effects have dietary factors such as antioxidants and microelements. Obesity deteriorates course of the asthma, exacerbates its symptoms and coexists with other diseases such as obturative sleep apnoea or oesophageal reflux. In coexistence of obesity and asthma, apart from pharmacological treatment of patients, reduction of body mass should be strongly recommended.
Keywords: obesity, asthma, allergic diseases, adipokines, aP2 proteinDOWNLOAD ARTICLE (PDF)
Clinical consequences of Yersinia enterocolitica infections
PediatrMedrodz Vol4Numer3, p. 164- 168
Yersinia enterocolitica (Y. enterocolitica) is a Gram-negative bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae group since 60’s. Basing on specific biochemical and serological characteristics there where isolated serological types and biotypes of Yersinia enterocolitica. Most widespread of these are biotypes 1B, 2, 4 and belonging to them respectively serotypes O:8, O:9, O:3. Among them, the most frequent pathogen is serotype O:3. Currently, in Poland and other European countries, there is notified growth in number of infections caused by highly virulent serotype O:8 till now appearing only in USA. Yersinia causes zoonosis called yersiniosis. Contaminated food infects human. Clinical appearance of yersiniosis varies depending on bacterial virulence, age and immunological status of ill patient. Usually disease appears as mild enterocolitis. Yersinia together with Campylobacter pylori and Salmonella is the most frequent bacterial factor causing enterocolitis in Europe. In state of immunological deficiency infection with Yersinia can cause severe purulent complications and highly mortal sepsis. The source of serotype O:8 infections in Poland is still not found. It has been isolated on the territory of whole country, from ill people in different age and with different clinical picture of yersiniosis. Serological and microbiological methods are used in diagnostic process of yersiniosis. Both of this are not perfect and should cover each other. Because of unclear epidemiological status of Yersinia enterocolitica type O:8 in Poland, if this infection is suspected, there is a duty to send probes of infected material and serum, together with detailed interview to Instytut Bakteriologii Państwowego Zakładu Higieny. There is serotyping processed and virulence factors estimated. As important as diagnosis is promotion of preventive actions like sanitary principles or avoidance of eating of uncooked food.
Keywords: yersiniosis, zoonoses, enterocolitis, enterotoxin, pseudoapendicitis, sepsisDOWNLOAD ARTICLE (PDF)
PedIatr Med rodz Vol 4 Numer 3, p.169-177
Past years have been marked with an increased interest in invasive treatment of acute and chronic pain. Anaesthesiologists when treating intra and postoperative pain use these methods most often. In chronic pain their use is less frequent. Depending on method used to perform the blockade it can have short or long lasting analgetic effect. Local anaesthetics are used with or without adjuvants such as clonidine, opioids, and adrenaline. In case of long-term blockade chemical substances, thermal and surgical methods are used to disrupt nervous structures. Unfortunately the scientific research has not been extensive in this field and that is the reason for them not to be popular. Invasive pain treatment is used in cases of failure of conservative methods or where side effects of the treatment were unacceptable. Presently these methods are more often required to support the pharmacological treatment in every stage of illness so they should be recognized as alternative or adjuvant methods in analgetic ladder. Besides analgetic effect short-lasting blockades are used for diagnostic purposes allowing localizing the place responsible for triggering pain experience as well as prognostic before planed long-lasting blockade. In chronic pain short lasting blocks should be avoided except for diagnostic purposes. Before application of any blockade we should consider if the benefit of the method would be greater than potential side effects.
Keywords: pain, nerve blocks, interventional pain therapy, neurolysis, sympathectomyDOWNLOAD ARTICLE (PDF)
Activity of essential oils in prevention and therapy of mycoses
Pediatr Med Rodz Vol 4 Numer 3, p.178-182
Strong anthiseptic activity of essential oils has been known for many centuries. The volatile or essential oils – aetherolea are secondary plant metabolites containing different compounds. A large number of essential oils and their constituents have been investigated for their microbial properties against some bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa. Their antimicrobial activity is strictly connected to chemical composition. So far there have been no reports on growing resistance of bacterial and fungal strains to constituents of oils. Various essential oils produce pharmacological effect demonstrating anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant properties. Essential oils of tea tree, thyme, oregano, savoury, basil, sage, clove, cinnamon were found to possess the strongest antifungal properties. The highest activity was reported for phenols – thymol, carvacrol and eugenol. These are thyme, oregano and savoury oils containing thymol and carvacrol as well as clove and cinnamon leaf oils containing eugenol. One of the most effective essential oil is Melaleuca alternifolia oil. Tea tree oil showed high activity against Candida sp., Trichophyton sp. and Microsporumsp. Thyme, oregano and rosemary oils appeared to have a wide spectrum of antibiotic activity against Candida albicans, Trichophyton sp., Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum canis. Clove oil and cinnamon leaf oil showed significant growth inhibition of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Volatile oils and volatile oils compounds have been shown the strong immunostimulatory effect – Pini Oil, Citri Oil, Geraniae Oil and a-pinen. Essential oils are frequently used in dermatology, especially in fungal infections. With good results oils are use in gynaecology and respiratory tract infections.
Keywords: antifungalactivity, Trichophyton sp., Candida sp., dermatology, gynaecology, respiratory systemDOWNLOAD ARTICLE (PDF)
Local and systemic inflammatory process inpatients with stable and exacerbation phase of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Pediatr Med rodz Vol 4 Numer 3,p.183-188
Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by the airflow limitation as a consequence of progressive inflammatory response to inhaled noxious particles and gases, particularly cigarette smoke. Three factors play a main role in pathogenesis of the disease: inflammatory process, oxidative stress and imbalance between proteases and antiproteases. Recently there are some evidences that also extrapulmonary changes like cachexia, osteoporosis or depression are associated with COPD. The aim of the study was to access local and systemic inflammation in patients with COPD. Material and methods: The study group consisted of 23 patients with COPD during stable and exacerbation phase of the disease. As a control served 16 asymptomatic smokers. We investigated: 1) concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and proinflammatory cytokines like TNF-a and IL-6 in expired breath condensate (EBC); 2) serum levels of TNF-a and IL-6. Results: It was showed that the level of H2O2 in EBC of patients with stable COPD was significantly higher as compared with healthy smokers. Additional significant enhanced in H2O2 exhalation was demonstrated during exacerbation of COPD. There was no difference in IL-6 concentration between the study groups (p>0,05). Discernible level of TNF-a in exhaled air was measured only in those with COPD exacerbation. Exhaled H2O2 correlated with FEV1% predicted value in patients with stable as well as with exacerbation phase of COPD. Also serum levels of TNF-a and IL-6 of patients with stable disease were higher compared to the values of healthy smokers. The serum concentrations of studied cytokines did not change significantly during exacerbation of COPD. Conclusions:Our results demonstrated the occurrence of local oxidative stress in patients with stable COPD. This process significantly increased during exacerbation of the disease. Besides of local reaction in respiratory compartment of patients with stable COPD we revealed systemic inflammatory process measured by serum levels of TNF-a and IL-6. Exhaled H2O2 correlated with lung function (FEV1% pred).
Keywords: COPD, expired breath condensate, hydrogen peroxide, TNF -a, IL -6DOWNLOAD ARTICLE (PDF)
Morbus Bourneville-pringle – case report
Pediatr Med rodz Vol 4 Numer 3, p. 189-194
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), known as Bourneville-Pringle syndrome, is a genetically conditioned multiple organ disease associated with mental retardation and epilepsy. It could be found in any ethnic groups and races in both sexes. It is estimated that about 2 million people suffer from the disease in the world. Clinical manifestations in the disease could be various. Many signs appear along with the natural development of a child. Lesions that could be found in the disease are associated with skin, nervous system, eye bulbs, heart, kidneys, liver and intestines. These could take form of cysts as well as tumours that could become malignant. Histologically these are fibromas, lipomas, myomas or vasolipomyomas. Specific organ lesions do not require histological confirmation. TSC diagnosis could be established on Gomez criteria established on TSC Consensus in Annapolis in 1998. TSC diagnosis could be assumed as final, when two major criteria are met or one major and two minor. There are no pathognomonic signs of TSC. That means many signs should be taken into account, sometimes hard to find in not highly specialized assessment. Many specialists and specific tests should take part in diagnosis establishment (dermatologic, neurologic, oculistic, cardiologic, endoscopic and imaging procedures – USG, CT, MRI, PET-CT). Family background and often assessment of family members is essential for diagnosis establishment. Therapeutic indications for specific organ lesions need individual approach. Treatment of the illness could be only palliative. It is based on surgical procedures of malignant tumours resection and antiepileptic treatment. In the paper authors discuss case of woman with liver lesions. Those weren’t assessed histologically because of the high risk of hemorrhagic complications. Follow-up was planned with use of imaging procedures. Discussed case shows that during decision making process risk assessment of imaging procedures should be taken into account.
Keywords: tuberous sclerosis complex, Bourneville-Pringle syndrome, computer tomography, positron emission tomography, endoscopyDOWNLOAD ARTICLE (PDF)
Late recognition of genitourinary tract defect, such as doubling of vagina and uterus coexisted with right kidney agenesis – case presentation
Pediatr Med rodz Vol 4 Numer 3, p. 195-199
Congenital defect is an interior or exterior morphologic abnormality of the proper development. The majority of those anomalies are caused by genetic and environmental factors. Therefore it is said that etiology is multifactorial (50% of congenital defects). The clinical presentation of developmental anomalies is variable, from a single defect to variable combination of abnormalities. Urinary tract defects may be due to diverse anomalies, like abnormality of kidney’s number, volume, structure and localizations or renal parenchyma dysfunction. Malformations of genital system may affect the vagina as well as the uterus. The aim of the study was to present the case of delayed recognition of genitourinary multiple defect, that was consisted of doubling of vagina and uterus along with right kidney agenesis. The urinary tract anomalies are commonly accompanied with genital tract disorders. One of the most common developmental defects of female genital system is absence of vagina and uterus that is also called Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKH syndrome). The cause of MRKH syndrome still remains unknown. The anomaly consists of complete absence of the vagina and the uterus or absence of vagina accompanied with variable abnormality of the uterus. Ovarian function and structure are preserved. When genitourinary anomalies are able to see on medical examination, early diagnosis is possible even directly after delivery. However the anomalies often remain undiagnosed until adolescence. Thus the first sign of the condition is primary amenorrhoea during puberty years. Sexual dysfunctions and infertility come out much later. Often the first signals of the condition are cyclic abdominal pains. Other less common symptoms are voiding disorders, hematuria or persistent, recurrent urinary tract infections which do not undergo routine therapy. Over the past few years the recognition of urinary tract defects has been markedly increased due to high development of diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities, especially a new laparoscopic procedure. Patient’s age, when the genitourinary tract abnormality is recognized, is extremely important. Usually early established diagnosis of congenital malformation is the key of its successful correction. In the future, numbers of late recognitions of genitourinary abnormalities shall constantly decrease, as a result of progress on new imaging possibilities. Summation: 1) The coexistence of congenital malformations of urinary and genital systems has been often observed, for that reason that always should be taking into consideration during therapeutic process. 2) The symptoms of genitourinary defects are usually non specific. 3) As a result of progress in the diagnostic methods, most of the congenital defects including genitourinary abnormalities are recognizable. 4) If the anomaly is early diagnosed, chances for successful chirurgical corrections and psychological therapy will evidently grow.
Keywords: malformation, genitourinary system, kidney agenesis, imaging methods, childrenDOWNLOAD ARTICLE (PDF)
The case of kidney rupture caused by posteriori urethral valve and diagnosed in neonatal period – many years of the patient observation
PEDIATR MED RODZ Vol 4 Numer 3, p. 200-204
Urinary tract defects are one of the most common congenital anomalies. As a result of progress in the medical imaging methods and chirurgical procedures with development of endoscopic facilities, early diagnosis and fast management is possible. Therefore we can avoid many complications caused by congenital defects. Congenital hydronephrosis may be due to a variety of causes: an obstruction in ureteropelvic junction, ureterostenosis, kidney duplication, vesicoureteral reflux, posterior urethral valve, prune belly syndrome. Posterior urethral valve is the most common reason for abnormal bladder emptying and occurs in approximately 1 in 5000 live male births. The clinical presentation of posterior urethral valve is variable. As a result of występumechanical obstruction, we can observe bladder hypertrophy, detrusor sphincter dysfunction, vesical diverticula, distension and elongation of the ureters, kidney dysplasia. The mild obstructive syndrome, like voiding disorder or nocturnal enuresis, is caused by “mini valve” type of posterior urethral valve that is characterized by limited functional impairment and upper urinary tract changes. In severely cases pulmonary hypoplasia and oligohydramnios may exhibit as a result of intrauterine renal dysfunction, therefore high perinatal mortality is observed. We describe the case of kidney rupture of the patient with posterior urethral valve, who was diagnosed in neonatal period and underwent chirurgical intervention. During following 17 years, the patient has been under regular control in Department of Pediatrics, Nephrology and Allergology in Military Medical Institute. Blood test and urinary test were constantly controlled and did not revealed any abnormalities, however imaging methods showed smaller injured kidney. Actually injured kidney present irregular echogenicity in ultrasonography, as well as irregular perfusion and accumulation of radiotracer within renal parenchyma, however with the function proportional to its mass in renoscyntygraphy. At the early childhood the boy suffered from nocturnal enuresis but after pharmacological treatment a gradual improvement was observed. Actually the boy is 17 years old and arterial hypertension has been recently diagnosed. Infant’s kidney with the lack of correlation between its mass and child’s weight and with weak protective structure is extremely exposed to injury factors. Depending on the degree of kidney’s injury conservatively or rarely chirurgical treatment is administrated.
Keywords: kidney injuries, posterior urethral valve, urinary tract defects, imaging methods, hydronephrosisDOWNLOAD ARTICLE (PDF)
Clinical difficulties of ESWL treatment in children with urolithiasis – own experiences
PEDIATR MED RODZ Vol 4 Numer 3, p. 205-210
Increase of interest among physicians of variable specialty in urolithiasis problem is a result of frequent recognition of that disease in children as well as in adults over the last few years. Urolithiasis is a recurrent and familial disease. Until recently, open stone surgery was the treatment of choice and the only opportunity to conventional therapy. Actually surgical indications are extremely limited. At present there are less invasive treatments recommended, like: ESWL (extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy), PCNL (percoutaneous nephro lithotripsy) and URSL (ureteroscopic lithotripsy). The choice of urolithiasis treatment depends mostly on size and localizations of the stone, anatomical circumstances, accessibility of treatments methods, clinical experience of the operator. Lithotripsy methods (ESWL) use high energetic extracorporeal shock waves, which are produced by litothriptor in order to disintegrate the stone. Calculi are qualified to the ESWL when are over the 5 mm but smaller than 2 cm. Preferred localizations are: ureteropelvic junction, upper ureter, renal pelvic, upper and medium renal calyx. The ESWL is also helpful in therapy of multiple and staghorn calculi, however usually requires several sessions. Contraindications to the ESWL are: pregnancy, coagulation disorders, anatomical obstruction under the calculi and active infection of urinary tract. Typical ESWL adverse effects are: coetaneous lesions, oedema of kidney parenchyma, haematomas, erythrocyturia, proteinuria, dilated pyelocalyceal systems, urinary retention, hydronephrosis. Therefore clinically we can observe: hematuria, renal colic, fever and hypertension. The aim of ESWL therapy is disintegration of the stone. Thus measure of ESWL’s efficacy is complete excretion of the stone. This procedure is carried out under control of renal ultrasound or X-ray. In this paper authors present variable clinical problems that may occur in patients treated by lithotripsy. Entire diagnostic and therapeutic processes were taking into account. Reported complications are supported by clinical cases. Summation: 1) Effectiveness of ESWL in children with urolithiasis depends mostly on careful selection of patients to the lithotripsy. 2) Good cooperation between nephrologist and urologist allows using combination of variable treatment methods due to current needs and determines effectiveness and safety of therapy as well. 3) Clinical complications are possible and may come out in each stage of urolithiasis treatment, that’s why individual control during whole therapeutic process is recommended.
Keywords: urolithiasis, ESWL, treatment, children, lithotripsyDOWNLOAD ARTICLE (PDF)