Clinical difficulties of ESWL treatment in children with urolithiasis – own experiences
Klinika Pediatrii, Nefrologii i Alergologii Dziecięcej Wojskowego Instytutu Medycznego w Warszawie. Kierownik Kliniki: prof. dr hab. n. med. Anna Jung 2 Oddział Chirurgii Warszawskiego Szpitala dla Dzieci. Ordynator: dr n. med. Beata Jurkiewicz Correspondence to: Klinika Pediatrii, Nefrologii i Alergologii Dziecięcej CSK MON WIM, ul. Szaserów 128, 00-909 Warszawa, tel.: 022 681 72 36 Source of financing: Department own sources
PEDIATR MED RODZ Vol 4 Numer 3, p. 205-210
Increase of interest among physicians of variable specialty in urolithiasis problem is a result of frequent recognition of that disease in children as well as in adults over the last few years. Urolithiasis is a recurrent and familial disease. Until recently, open stone surgery was the treatment of choice and the only opportunity to conventional therapy. Actually surgical indications are extremely limited. At present there are less invasive treatments recommended, like: ESWL (extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy), PCNL (percoutaneous nephro lithotripsy) and URSL (ureteroscopic lithotripsy). The choice of urolithiasis treatment depends mostly on size and localizations of the stone, anatomical circumstances, accessibility of treatments methods, clinical experience of the operator. Lithotripsy methods (ESWL) use high energetic extracorporeal shock waves, which are produced by litothriptor in order to disintegrate the stone. Calculi are qualified to the ESWL when are over the 5 mm but smaller than 2 cm. Preferred localizations are: ureteropelvic junction, upper ureter, renal pelvic, upper and medium renal calyx. The ESWL is also helpful in therapy of multiple and staghorn calculi, however usually requires several sessions. Contraindications to the ESWL are: pregnancy, coagulation disorders, anatomical obstruction under the calculi and active infection of urinary tract. Typical ESWL adverse effects are: coetaneous lesions, oedema of kidney parenchyma, haematomas, erythrocyturia, proteinuria, dilated pyelocalyceal systems, urinary retention, hydronephrosis. Therefore clinically we can observe: hematuria, renal colic, fever and hypertension. The aim of ESWL therapy is disintegration of the stone. Thus measure of ESWL’s efficacy is complete excretion of the stone. This procedure is carried out under control of renal ultrasound or X-ray. In this paper authors present variable clinical problems that may occur in patients treated by lithotripsy. Entire diagnostic and therapeutic processes were taking into account. Reported complications are supported by clinical cases. Summation: 1) Effectiveness of ESWL in children with urolithiasis depends mostly on careful selection of patients to the lithotripsy. 2) Good cooperation between nephrologist and urologist allows using combination of variable treatment methods due to current needs and determines effectiveness and safety of therapy as well. 3) Clinical complications are possible and may come out in each stage of urolithiasis treatment, that’s why individual control during whole therapeutic process is recommended.
Keywords: urolithiasis, ESWL, treatment, children, lithotripsy