Vaccinations belong to the basic and most important prophylactic activities. The paper presents the latest changes in vaccination recommendations for healthy neonates and high risk groups (premature infants) as well as infant population. Considerable changes in tuberculosis immunization for developmental age population have been noted recently in Poland. According to the latest recommendations BCG vaccination should be applied once, as soon as possible after a child’s birth, yet not necessarily during the first 24 hours of life, but on a chosen day of stay in a neonate clinic. The obligation of scare after vaccination evaluation has been abolished, too. However, the duty of medical documentation control in the first year of life in order to check if BCG vaccination has been performed is obligatory. In premature neonates with the risk of serious bacterial infections, compulsory vaccinations should not be delayed, and in children without clinical problems, they should be performed in accordance with chronological age. The children from this group should also be covered by the extended program of active immunization available today in Poland. The constant threat of infectious diseases is noted in WHO reports. The latest report published in 2008 presents the groups of the most dangerous diseases which require priority preventive activities. The group includes pneumococcal and meningococcal infections, influenza and varicella. Compulsory refunded vaccinations against pneumococci for children up to the age of 5 and against varicella for children up to the age of 12 were introduced in October 2008 in Poland. One should hope that thanks to the progress in vaccinology and new vaccines implementation it will be possible to effectively protect the developmental age population against numerous diseases.
Keywords: prophylactic vaccination, neonates, premature infants, infants, children from high risk groups