Obesity rates are increasing in most countries throughout the world. It is estimated that more than 50% of adults population in industrial countries is overweight and the percentage of the obesity reaches up to 30% in some countries (USA, United Kingdom). This alarming tendency in also observed among children and adolescents. The obesity epidemic – the sudden and rapid increase in obesity rates has started in 1980s and continues unabated today. It became a serious public health problem. The reasons for the increase are complex and involve biological, behavioural and environmental factors, especially unsatisfied level of daily physical activity and bad food habits. So far success in long-term obesity treatment is poor and appears to require promotion of life style modification and proper eating strategies for the whole population. Popular weight-loss plans often have conflicting recommendations, which makes it difficult to determine the most healthful approach to weight loss. The outcomes of many dietary strategies in obesity are often short time lasting and weight loss is soon followed by rapid body mass gain as yo-yo effect. Therefore there is need for further researches on differences in the composition of the energy-restricted diets and on their influence on body mass reduction in long-term perspective. The authors in this paper are presenting some of the most popular dietary approaches for weight loss, pointing out the efficacy and the overall adherence rates of them, dietary quality and medical grounds for their application in the obesity therapy.
Keywords: obesity dietary treatment, energy-restricted diet, low-carbohydrate diet, author’s diet, diet guidelines in obesity