Practical aspects of prophylactic immunization in children
Klinika Pediatrii i Zaburzeń Rozwoju Dzieci i Młodzieży Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Białymstoku. Kierownik Kliniki: prof. dr hab. n. med. Janina D. Piotrowska-Jastrzębska Correspondence to: Klinika Pediatrii i Zaburzeń Rozwoju Dzieci i Młodzieży Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Białymstoku, ul. Waszyngtona 17, 15-274 Białystok, tel.: 085 742 30 03, faks: 085 745 06 44 Source of financing: Department own sources
children, vaccinations, vaccination suitability, vaccines, adverse events following immunization
ABSTRACT
The paper discusses practical aspects of prophylactic vaccinations in Poland. Special attention was put to vaccination suitability, selection of vaccines, schedule and application methods. Active immunization in children is performed in accordance with national prophylactic immunization program, in case of epidemiological threats, additionally special vaccination actions are performed in high risk groups. Before every vaccination appropriate medical qualification should be carried out, including history, physical examination, evaluation of potential post-vaccination risks, recommendations and indications. The usage of 10-point screening pre-vaccination “Questionnaire in children and adolescents” is highly recommended. Appropriate time intervals between living vaccines applications or subsequent doses of the same vaccines should be observed. In case of repeated injections in children it is also vital to relieve pain by breast-feeing or sucrose solution during vaccine application. Local anaesthetics or painkillers can also be applied. It can be problematic for a doctor to recommend vaccinations for children suffering from allergies. It should be pointed out that only anaphylaxis to vaccine antigens or other parts of vaccine is an absolute contraindication against its usage. Children with chronic diseases should be immunized during remission periods and receive a wider than obligatory range of vaccines.
Keywords: Pediatr Med rodz Vol 4 Numer 4, p. 240-244