Allergic rhinitis diagnosis and treatment

Klinika Pediatrii, Nefrologii i Alergologii Dziecięcej Wojskowego Instytutu Medycznego w Warszawie.
Kierownik Kliniki: prof. dr hab. n. med. Anna Jung
Correspondence to: Klinika Pediatrii, Nefrologii i Alergologii Dziecięcej CSK MON WIM, ul. Szaserów 128, 00-909 Warszawa, tel.: 022 681 72 36
Source of financing: Department own sources

Pediatr Med rodz Vol 5 Numer 3, p. 199-203
ABSTRACT

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common allergic disease in the world. Frequently it coexists with other allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic conjunctivitis or allergic dermatitis. It is inflammatory disease with immunological background, and it is caused by IgE-dependent reaction of the nasal mucous membrane to allergen. If time of symptoms duration is taken into account AR can be classified into intermittent or perennial, and severity of symptoms classifies it into mild or moderate/severe. Allergic rhinitis is a disease that depends of many factors. Interactions of environmental and genetic factors are responsible for its development. Environmental factors include airborne outdoor and indoor allergens (pollen, mold spores, house dust mites, animals fur and dander, insects), occupational allergens and atmospheric air pollution. Genetic factors are atopy and particular genetic polymorphisms coexistence. Symptoms of AR are itching, sneezing, clear nasal discharge, nasal congestion and loss of smell ability. Recognition of AR bases on compliance of symptoms and results of skin prick tests or the presence of specific IgE antibodies in blood. Assessment of amount of total IgE is not helpful in diagnostic process, while nasal provocation tests are more useful in scientific researches than clinical practice. Therapeutic process consists of patients education, exposure to allergens reduction, pharmacological treatment and specific immunotherapy. In pharmacological treatment are used systemic or topical antihistamine drugs, systemic or topical glucocorticoids, topical decongestants, pyłmontelukast, cromoglicas, and ipratropium bromide. Specific immunotherapy is indicated in selected groups of patients and it influences natural history of allergic diseases.

Keywords: allergic rhinitis, allergens, mediators of inflammatory reaction, prick tests, specific IgE