Sublingual immunotherapy

Klinika Pediatrii, Nefrologii i Alergologii Dziecięcej CSK MON WIM w Warszawie. Kierownik Kliniki: prof. dr hab. n. med. Anna Jung
Correspondence to: Klinika Pediatrii, Nefrologii i Alergologii Dziecięcej CSK MON WIM, ul. Szaserów 128, 00-909 Warszawa, tel.: 022 681 72 63
Source of financing: Department own sources

Pediatr Med rodz Vol 5 Numer 3, p. 216-218, 230

The specific immunotherapy next to the elimination of allergen from patient’s environment is the only causal way of treatment of allergic diseases. It refers to give the patients increasing doses of allergenic vaccination by injectional way or more rarely used non-injectional. Local immunotherapy includes: sublingual immunotherapy – “spit” type and “swallow” type, oral, intranasal, intrabronchial and intraconjunctival immunotherapy. First attempts of using immunotherapy have dated back to the year 1900. Over next hundred years there have been periods of variable interests of this form of treatment. In the nineties of twentieth century an interest of non-injectional form of specific immunotherapy has increased distinctly. Last years research confirms that sublingual immunotherapy can be an alternative to injectional immunotherapy. A necessary condition is using high doses of allergen. SLIT is safe way of treatment and acceptable to patients. Most of observed side effects are connected with immediate exposing mucous membrane to action of allergenic vaccination. Local side effects are usually short-time, they recede spontaneous and doesn’t need to be treated. Vaccinations, which are used in specific immunotherapy, should be standardized by biological tests. Due to it, next series of vaccinations are comparable to the biological model in respect of contents of allergen and power of activity. It is recommended to use maximum four allergens in one vaccination and not to connect seasonal allergens with yearlong ones. Specific immunotherapy can be used seasonal and yearlong, a scheme of yearlong immunotherapy enables giving higher doses of allergenic vaccination and allows to achieve better clinical efficiency. Optimal period of specific immunotherapy isn’t defined ultimately. It is recommended to use immunotherapy not shorter than three to five years.

Keywords: specific immunotherapy, local immunotherapy, sublingual immunotherapy, allergenic vaccinations, adverse reactions