Urinary tract infections in children
Klinika Pediatrii, Nefrologii i Alergologii Dziecięcej WIM w Warszawie. Kierownik Kliniki: prof. dr hab. n. med. Anna Jung Adres do korespondencji: Klinika Pediatrii, Nefrologii i Alergologii Dziecięcej CSK MON WIM, ul. Szaserów 128, 04‑141 Warszawa, tel.: 22 783 47 40, e‑mail: vbochniewska@onet.eu
Praca finansowana ze środków własnych
Pediatr Med rodz Vol 8 Numer 1, p. 12-22
ABSTRACT
Urinary tract infections are one of the most common bacterial diseases among children. In the adult population urinary tract infections represent 10‑20% of community‑acquired infections and approximately 40‑50% of nosocomial infections. In the neonatal period and in the first three months of live urinary tract infections are observed more frequently among boys whereas in the following years this is more common among girls. Urine found in the urinary tract of a healthy men is sterile. The presence of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi) in the urinary tract located above the sphincter of the bladder is considered to be the urinary tract infection. Increased uropathogenic colonization around the external urethral orifice, urinary retention and weakness of local defence mechanisms are playing crucial role in developing the urinary tract infections. Evolution of urinary tract infections among children usually takes place through the ascending path. Haematogenous urinary tract infections occur mainly during neonatal period and among infants. Recurrent urinary tract infections are usually observed among children during their first year of life. Escherichia coli is responsible for approximately 33‑90% cases of urinary tract infections among children, depending on age and sex. Clinical symptoms of urinary tract infections vary depending on the child’s age, anatomic location and severity of inflammatory changes. It is not possible to take one standardized approach in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Generally, the rule is that the younger the child and the more severe form of the disease, the therapy should be more intense. Method treatment is always chosen individually. Co‑trimoxazole prophylaxis treatment, for 12 months, reduces the risk of re‑infection.
Keywords: urinary tract infection, urinary tract abnormalities, vesicoureteric reflux, children, treatment