Aerosol therapy is one of the most important administration routes in the treatment of many pulmonary
diseases in childhood. The basic advantage of aerosol therapy is that drugs are directly targeted at the diseased site in the lung, which warranties a more rapid therapeutic effect and possibility to lower doses of drug application. Effectiveness of inhalation is dependent on anatomical build and action of child’s respiratory system, proper drug application, droplet size, used aerosol delivery devices. Integral part of the aerosol treatment is also patients’ good education in childhood. The aerosol administration method should be focus on those inhalers which are easiest to use, correctly matched to the different age groups of children and do not require a large number of training needed to achieve the correct technique. Systems of aerosol therapy differ from each other in terms of construction, way of producing aerosol stream, optimal inhalation technique and difficulties of using. In paediatric pulmonary diseases four different systems to inhale drugs are used: pMDI (pressurized metered‑dose inhaler), pMDI with spacer, DPI (dry powder inhaler) and nebulizer apparatus. In young children who breath usually through the nose a difficulty with establishing cooperation may arise, therefore we use a face mask. Regardless of the choice the most important thing is proper and repeated education by demonstration of a breathing technique and of the inhalationprocess control. Analysis of the needs of the child with pulmonary changes is an important element of the well done inhalation treatment.
Keywords: aerosol therapy, nebulizer treatments, inhalations in children, systems of aerosol therapy, inhalation technique