Barrett’s oesophagus (BE) is premalignant condition of oesophagus connected with long‑term oesophageal reflux disease and is defined as a process of replacing normal squamous epithelium above Z‑line in intestinal columnar epithelium. This premalignant condition is connected with higher risk of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus. Actually, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with oesophageal biopsy is recommended in diagnosing Barrett’s oesophagus. The frequency of endoscopic examination depends on presence of grade of dysplasia. Prague Criteria helps us to define spreading of intestinal epithelium. In this classification, the maximal length (M) (including tongues) of Barrett’s oesophagus as well as the length of the circumferential Barrett’s segment (C) are measured during endoscopy. Due to the technical progress there are many new endoscopic technics which are tested in diagnosing Barrett’s oesophagus. They should have the highest specificity and sensitivity and must be characterised by minimal invasiveness to the human body. Nowadays we use such technics as: classical and electronic chromoendoscopy, narrow band imaging, autofluorescence, high resolution endoscopy, magnification endoscopy, confocal laser endomicroscopy. In this view we will try to present the most important modern endoscopic methods which may be useful in diagnosing and monitoring of Barrett’s oesophagus.
Keywords: Barrett’s oesophagus, chromoendoscopy, narrow‑band imaging, endocytoscopy, optical coherent tomography