2013, Vol 9, No 3
Tuberculosis – from diagnosing to treatment according to the European Union standards
Pediatr Med rodz Vol 9 Numer 3, p. 224–231
ABSTRACT

In the article the authors presented the epidemiological data referring to tuberculosis in some countries and in Poland. Tuberculosis continues to be a priority challenge for public health. The present chemotherapy for tuberculosis is very efficacious but has the disadvantages of being lengthy and complex. The serious problems remain drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, especially multi-drug MDR-TB and extensively-drug resistant XRD-TB as well as the prevalence of HIV co-infection among tuberculosis cases. In October, 2011 the European Union Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ESTC) were finalized. This document is consistent with WHO definitions and recommendations. ESTC consists of four sections – diagnosis, treatment, HIV and comorbidities and public health, which correspond to the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC) from 2009. In 2013, the Polish recommendations for tuberculosis were published. The authors of this paper comment on all recommendations referring to tuberculosis. Clinical symptoms of tuberculosis and some problems connected with latent tuberculosis are presented. All sputum specimens and other samples should be submitted for microscopic, culture and drug susceptibility tests. WHO recommends rapid molecular assay, which should be performed on the day of microbiological diagnosis of tuberculosis. All patients, including those with HIV infection, who have not been previously treated and without any risk factors for drug resistance, should receive isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol for two months and isoniazid and rifampicin for four months. Some standards are devoted to children tuberculosis. Infection evoked by Mycobacterium tuberculosis should be elicited using tuberculin skin test and/or interferon gamma release assay (IGRA test). Children under 5 years of age and patients with HIV infection should be treated for latent tuberculosis infection with isoniazid when they do not have active tuberculosis.

Keywords: tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, antituberculosis drugs, latent tuberculosis, IGRA tests
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Novel cardiovascular therapy according to 2013 guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology
Pediatr Med rodz Vol 9 Numer 3, p. 232–236
ABSTRACT

This year, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has published new guidelines on the diagnosis and management of arterial hypertension, management of patients with stable coronary artery disease and guidelines on approach to cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes and pre-diabetes. The incidence of all of these disorders in the general population is very high. In everyday clinical practice, physicians, regardless their specialties, very often face patients with arterial hypertension, diabetes or coronary artery disease. To treat patients in accordance with the latest recommendations, clinicians must constantly learn and expand their knowledge. In the context of the publication of the new guidelines it is particularly important to familiarize yourself with the newly introduced rules on pharmacotherapy in relation to newest findings published in recent years. In this field changes are the most dynamic and with a very high degree of influence on the treatment of patients. Some of pharmaceutical groups used in cardiology are gaining importance, others are slowly being replaced. Position of drug classes such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, statins or aspirin in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular events, in the current guidelines has been strengthened. However, in the case of these classes of drugs very important is the choice of specific substance, which will meet the expectations of both the effectiveness and safety in therapy. Present paper, in addition to summarizing the ESC most recent guidelines, demonstrates scientific evidence for the clinical efficacy of substances such as ramipril, telmisartan, atorvastatin or rosuvastatin in patients with diseases of the cardiovascular system.

Keywords: European Society of Cardiology, guidelines, ramipril, telmisartan, atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, aspirin
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Hypertensive emergency and urgency in children and adolescents – diagnostics and treatment
Pediatr Med rodz Vol 9 Numer 3, p. 237–244
ABSTRACT

Although the prevalence of hypertension in the paediatric population is rising, simultaneously with the rise in childhood obesity worldwide, hypertensive emergencies are unusual in clinical practice. A hypertensive emergency is defined as a severe hypertension and life-threatening event in the presence of acute target-organ lesions, requiring immediate intervention to reduce the blood pressure. Hypertensive urgency refers to severe hypertension without evidence of new or worsening end-organ injury. End-organ damage is defined as impairment in renal, myocardial functions and neurological manifestations derived from hypertension. Child’s doctors should pay attention to the paediatric patients who present with elevated blood pressure and related clinical hypertensive symptoms, especially headache, nausea/vomiting, and altered consciousness which may indicate that appropriate and immediate antihypertensive medications are necessary to prevent further damage. Severely hypertensive patients with acute end-organ damage (hypertensive emergencies) warrant admission to an intensive care unit for immediate reduction of blood pressure with a short-acting intravenous antihypertensive medication. Hypertensive urgencies (severe hypertension with no end-organ damage) may in general be treated with oral antihypertensive agents as an outpatient. Choice of the appropriate agent should be based on the underlying pathophysiological and clinical findings, on the mechanism of action, and on its potential side effects. This article focuses on some of the important aspects of paediatric hypertensive urgencies and emergencies, including common causes, important features of diagnosis and options for medical management.

Keywords: hypertensive emergency, hypertensive urgency, children, diagnostics, treatment
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Bone density in patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria – literature review concerning vitamin D supplementation
Pediatr Med rodz Vol 9 Numer 3, p. 245–249
ABSTRACT

Many scientific works, concerning an impact of vitamin D and its active form – 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] on human health, appeared lately. Vitamin D deficiency, defined as low level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), is a global health problem. It is generally accepted in Poland, that vitamin D skin synthesis, necessary for maintenance its proper level, can take place between April and September, if the sun skin exposure, without sun blockers, covers 18% of body area for 15 minutes daily. It’s been scientifically proven that commonly used for prevention and treatment vitamin D doses are safe. Toxic concentrations of 25(OH)D is above 200 ng/ml. Recommendations concerning vitamin D supplementation are commonly available for all age groups. Polish recommendations were presented in 2009. Nevertheless there are clinical situations when vitamin D supply is potentially harmful. One of them is urolithiasis, especially when stones are made of calcium. On the other hand, there is relationship between idiopathic hypercalciuria and low bone density. Vitamin D acts, among others, as factor increasing intestinal calcium absorption. Calcium absorbed to the blood builds bone mass, but is excreted with urine as well. Low calcium diet paradoxically favours urolithiasis. Systemic scientific analysis of adult population lead to conclusion that too low and too big calcium supply made conditions conductive to produce renal stones. Not numerous epidemiological analysis did not demonstrate relation between vitamin D supply and the risk of urolithiasis. But in available literature it is difficult to find recommendations concerning supplementation of vitamin D in children with hypercalciuria and renal stones. Proper level of vitamin D has great impact on children’s development and health. It seems that careful vitamin D supply, with the use of calcium blood and urine level and 25(OH)D and alkaline phosphatase activity monitoring, could be of benefit in such patients.

Keywords: hypercalciuria, utolithiasis, urinary tract, bone density, vitamin D
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Irritable bowel syndrome – diagnostics and treatment principles
Pediatr Med rodz Vol 9 Numer 3, p. 250–255
ABSTRACT

Irritable bowel syndrome is a persistent and relapsing bowel function disorder characterized by defecation associated pain and stool consistency or defecation frequency. This syndrome poses a significant social problem because it is one of the most frequent alimentary tract illness. Etiopathology of the illness is still unclear and appears to be associated with many factors. Among them are bacterial flora, visceral supersensitivity, traumatic event, serotonin dysfunction. To establish diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome it is necessary to use diagnostic criteria. Nowadays Rome III diagnostic criteria are obligatory. It is necessary to look out for organic illness symptoms or family incidence of colorectal cancer. Despite influence on life quality the illness does not influence life expectancy or does not have complications. Irritable bowel syndrome treatment should be individualized with social status and life quality impact analysis. Pharmacological treatment should be connected with education and psychotherapy in some cases. Irritable bowel syndrome treatment usually consists of 2–3 medicaments and should be aimed at most troublesome symptoms relief. Pharmacological treatment consists of relaxant drugs, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, 5-HT4 agonists, antibiotics, probiotics, antidepressants or psychotropic drugs. Currently clinical trials are performed to test new substances in irritable syndrome treatment.

Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, Rome III diagnostic criteria, aetiology, diagnostics, treatment
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The management of patient with colon diverticula depend on different clinical symptoms
Pediatr Med rodz Vol 9 Numer 3, p. 256–262
ABSTRACT

Diverticulosis of colon is the state of having diverticula in the colon, which are sac-like, outpocketings (protrusion) of the colonic mucosa and submucosa through weaknesses of muscle layers in the colon wall. These are more common in the sigmoid colon which is a common place for increased intracolon pressure. Diverticular disease – symptomatic form of diverticulosis – is one of the most prevalent medical conditions to affect Western populations and its prevalence increases with age up to 65% in 85 years old population. As our elderly population grows, we can anticipate a concomitant rise in the number of patients with diverticular disease. But the number of young people with this illness increased last time. The etiopathogenesis of colonic diverticulosis remains unclear. It is hypothesized that the main factor responsible for diverticulum development is a diet poor in fibre. Probably it is connected with “Western” life style. Although diverticula are often asymptomatic, their presence is associated with possible complications, such as diverticulitis, diverticular bleeding, and diverticular colitis. Symptomatic diverticular disease can range from mild, low-level symptomatology similar to that seen in irritable bowel syndrome to acute bouts of diverticulitis complicated by abscess or frank perforation. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review the epidemiology, etiopathogenesis and clinical presentations of diverticular disease, and then propose recommendations regarding appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic strategies supported by the best available current evidence.

Keywords: diverticulum, diverticular disease of the colon, diverticulitis, diagnosis, therapy
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Renal injuries – symptoms and diagnostics
Pediatr Med rodz Vol 9 Numer 3, p. 263–266
ABSTRACT

The authors present the classification, symptoms and diagnostic methods of renal injuries. These injuries can be life-threatening, but most of them are mild and can be managed conservatively. No less than 75% patients who were diagnosed with renal injuries are men. The group which is particularly exposed to renal injuries are young men doing sports, the injured of road accidents, victims of accidents in the house or at work, victims of fights and assaults. The results of conducted studies indicate that haematuria, pain and ecchymosis in the lumbar region, fractured ribs as well as abdominal mass can be the symptoms of renal injury. There are blunt and penetrating renal injuries as well as a 5-level classification of kidney injuries according to a degree of injuries – AAST. This classification enables to perform a standardization of different patient groups to choose a proper therapy and to predict the results of treatment. The mechanism of injury, its placement and severity are the standard guidelines within a choice of diagnostic methods and indications for treatment’s strategy. The imaging examinations are necessary in diagnostics of abdomen injuries with a suspicion of renal injury. Among the imaging examinations used in diagnostics of injuries of urogenital system and renal injuries it is to enumerate: ultrasonography, computed tomography, urography, arteriography and angiography. Computed tomography of abdomen with contrast injected into an intravenous line is a gold standard in diagnostics of renal injuries. If computed tomography is not available, it is recommended to perform ultrasonography as an examination of first choice.

Keywords: kidney, injury, haematuria, symptoms, diagnostic methods
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Renal injuries – treatment
Pediatr Med rodz Vol 9 Numer 3, p. 267–271
ABSTRACT

The anatomical structure of urogenital system contributes to high risk of mechanical injuries. The group which is particularly exposed to renal injuries are young men doing sports, the injured of road accidents, victims of accidents in the house or at work. The authors present the medical and surgical treatment after renal injuries. There are blunt and penetrating renal injuries as well as a 5-level classification of kidney injuries according to a degree of injuries – AAST. This classification enables to perform a standardization of different patient groups to choose a proper therapy and to predict the results of treatment. The most of renal injuries involves the medical treatment. However, it is often needed the surgical intervention. The indications for surgical treatment are haemodynamic instability, necessity of surgical verification of concomitant injuries, expanding or throbbing perirenal haematoma confirmed in laparotomy, grade 5 injury. The patients with the serious renal injury should undertake necessary medical examinations to determine a range of injury and to undertake the appropriate treatment. Furthermore, the longterm medical controls are recommended. The contemporary treatment’s approaches, especially AAST scale, are going to medical treatment of blunt renal injuries. The injuries of 1–3 grade are usually treated conservatively and in case of grade 4 and 5, a surgical procedure is needed. Conservative treatment of grade 1–3 injuries does not relate to a risk of late complications. The renal-vascular injuries of 5 grade are treated as an absolute indication for exploratory surgery.

Keywords: kidney, injury, medical treatment, surgical treatment, indications
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Primary tooth eruption – teething-associated or coincidental symptoms?
Pediatr Med rodz Vol 9 Numer 3, p. 272–275
ABSTRACT

Teething is a part of the body growth and maturity process and is affected by many factors, both local and systemic. This paper attempts to evaluate possible relationship between teething and concurrent local or systemic symptoms, basing on the data presented by literature. Teething has been the focus of study for paediatricians and paediatric dentists alike for decades now. Nevertheless, the question whether some symptoms concurrent with teething are related to it or just occurring accidentally in time has never been answered. Among main possible concurrent symptoms and signs are: biting, drooling, gum-rubbing, sucking, irritability, wakefulness, ear-rubbing, facial rash, decreased appetite for solid foods, mild temperature, congestion, sleep disturbance, stool looseness, increased stool number, decreased appetite for liquids, cough, rash other than facial rash, fever, vomiting. Teething observations are usually done as a retrospective study, on groups comprising various number of members. The compiled data are noted by parents, rather than qualified medical staff. Available literature does not give a clear answer if teething is preceded by symptoms or signs exclusively specific to it. It is assumed that no symptom can be considered prodromal of teething and in every individual case different potential causative factors should be taken into account, while severe systemic symptoms require medical consultation.

Keywords: tooth eruption, deciduous dentition, primary teeth, teething-associated symptoms, paediatric dentistry
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The parental attitudes and emotional functioning amongst parents of children with chronic kidney disease
Pediatr Med rodz Vol 9 Numer 3, p. 276–281
ABSTRACT

Introduction: Chronic diseases in children, besides the influence on their health and mental status, change the life of the whole family. Aim of the study: Estimation of the parental attitudes and emotional functioning amongst parents of children with chronic kidney disease. Material and methods: Study group consisted of 22 parents of children with chronic kidney disease. The disease was diagnosed at least three months before the study. The children were treated in a tertiary paediatric nephrology centre. Twenty age-matched parents of healthy children served as controls. For the analysis 5 questionnaires were used: 1) clinical and epidemiological; 2) STAI X-1, STAI X-2; 3) Beck’s Depression Inventory; 4) CECS; 5) Plopa’s questionnaire of parental attitudes. Results: Parents with children with the chronic kidney disease had higher result in the test which estimated the level of depression and the level of fear. When parental attitudes were concerned, we observed the higher results in the protection in study group. Additionally, an inverse correlation between duration of the disease and level of fear was observed. Conclusion: The study clearly showed higher level of depression and fear in the parents of children with chronic kidney disease when compared with the parents from the control group. They also presented overprotection attitude. The intensity of fear in the study group decreased with the time of disease.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease, depression, fear, children, parents
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Pulmonary tuberculosis in a 14-year-old girl – diagnostic difficulties
Pediatr Med rodz Vol 9 Numer 3, p. 282–286
ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis is still a significant clinical problem. Rate of incidence of the disease in the paediatric population is a good measure of the epidemiological situation in the area. Tuberculosis in children, always primary, is significantly different in its course from tuberculosis in adults. The most common form in children is a disease of the lung parenchyma and the clinical course may be atypical, crafty, oligosymptomatic and carried out under the guise of clinical other diseases. The diagnosis of tuberculosis in children is based on carefully collected history, clinical examination and the results of additional tests (tuberculin skin test, chest X-ray and sputum smear microscopy). Microbiological test result is the gold standard. Gastric lavage were collected to study in young children, in older – induced sputum concentrated solution of NaCl or bronchial lavage obtained during bronchoscopy. The only available vaccine against tuberculosis is BCG. In Poland, the vaccination is carried out in the first 24 hours of life for all neonates who do not have contraindications. The BCG vaccine does not protect against the disease, but only reduces the number of severe forms of tuberculosis in children. Treatment options include combination regimens consisting of two phases: a phase of intensive treatment of sterilization and a continuation phase. The article presents a case study of 14-year-old girl hospitalized in the Department of Paediatrics, Paediatric Nephrology and Allergology, because of lack of improvement in outpatient treatment of pneumonia. Due to the absence of regression of inflammatory changes on the chest radiographs and persistent auscultatory changes of the lung fields, a series of tests was performed, finally recognizing tuberculosis.

Keywords: childhood tuberculosis, BCG, pneumonia, mycobacterium, tuberculosis treatment
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