Vaccination provides the best protection against infectious diseases. Getting to know parents’ beliefs and opinions about vaccination allows one to undertake actions aiming to increase their confidence about vaccination and maintain vaccination coverage at an acceptable level. Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to analyse the attitudes of parents towards vaccination in Upper Silesia, Poland, by investigating the parents’ awareness of safety, efficacy and the need for vaccination in children, and to establish educational needs of parents in the area of vaccination. Material and methods: Six hundred parents of children at the age of 0–6 years were included in the study. The study was conducted in randomly selected kindergartens in Bielsko-Biała, in the Paediatric Hospital in Bielsko-Biała and in the Department of Paediatrics of the Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. The research was conducted through a diagnostic survey, using a self-constructed questionnaire. Results: The implementation of mandatory vaccination of children in the investigated group is at a high level. Less than a half of the surveyed parents received information about adverse effects of vaccines from a doctor or a nurse. After vaccination, children experienced adverse reactions, which were mild. In the study group, most parents expressed a negative opinion about safety and effectiveness of vaccination, or had no opinion on the subject. The parents usually derived information about vaccination from a doctor and the Internet. The parents believed that vaccinations were necessary but not free from risks. Conclusions: The study reveals that it is significant to make health care professionals more involved in the education of parents about safety and efficacy of vaccination and to have them provide information about adverse effects of vaccination.