Sore throat is one of the most frequent reason of visiting physician. The essence of a sore throat is inflammation on the growing surface infection. Viral infection are the cause of pharyngitis and tonsillitis in 70‑85% in children and in 90‑95% in adults. Usually these are rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, adenoviruses, Epstein‑Barr virus, Coxsackie, herpes simplex and influenza and parainfluenza viruses. Bacterial sore throats are usually caused by beta‑hemolytic group A streptococcus, mainly Streptococcus pyogenes. Regardless of aetiology, the infection occurs by respiratory droplets and by contact with nasopharyngeal secretions of the diseased person. Diagnosis of a sore throat based on carefully collected data from medical history and physical examination. Sometimes it is necessary to perform a quick test or laboratory tests in the direction of streptococci. Distinguishing bacterial from viral infections is important because of the significantly increasing antibiotic resistance and a worldwide tendency to antibiotics overuse. First, the treatment should be symptomatic. It is advisable to use anti‑inflammatory drugs, analgesic and local treatment with painkillers and substances that reduce the inflammation (e.g. benzydamine hydrochloride, flurbiprofen, choline salicylate, chlorquinaldol). In case of the bacterial aetiology, first‑line antibiotic is penicillin, alternatively first generation cephalosporin or amoxicillin and in the case of allergic reactions – macrolides.
Keywords: sore throat, virus, Streptococcus pyogenes, local treatment, antibiotics