Serum S100B protein concentration in adolescents with syncope
1 Teaching and Research Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Upper Silesian Child Health Centre in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland. Head of the Department: Professor Lesław Szydłowski, MD, PhD
2 Teaching and Research Department of Physiology, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland. Head of the Department: Professor Joanna Lewin-Kowalik, MD, PhD
3 Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Upper Silesian Child Health Centre in Katowice, Poland. Head of the Department: Professor Lesław Szydłowski, MD, PhD
4 Department of Paediatric Cardiosurgery and Cardiosurgical Intensive Care University Children Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland. Head of the Department: Professor Janusz Skalski, MD, PhD
Correspondence: Professor Lesław Szydłowski, MD, PhD, Clinic of Paediatric Cardiology, Silesian Child Health Centre in Katowice, Medyków 16, 40-752 Katowice, Poland, tel.: +48 32 207 18 55, fax: +48 32 207 18 54, e-mail: szydlowskil@interia.pl
Pediatr Med Rodz 2016, 12 (1), p. 69–76
DOI: 10.15557/PiMR.2016.0006
ABSTRACT

Introduction: Children and adolescents with syncope are frequent patients in a general practitioner’s or paediatrician’s office. Syncope is a sudden, reversible, short and spontaneously resolving loss of consciousness associated with transient global cerebral hypoperfusion. The pattern of metabolic and clinical disorders resulting from brain ischaemia has been well described in patients with cerebral stroke. Due to brain ischaemia during stroke, the blood–brain barrier is broken down, which results in the appearance of S100B protein in the cerebrospinal fluid. Its concentration increases with increasing extent of ischaemia. The aim of the study was to assess whether adolescents with syncope present elevated serum S100B protein concentrations. Material and methods: The analysis involved 70 adolescents at 14–18 years of age (average age: 15.5), including 32 syncope patients and 38 controls. The basic diagnostic test was a tilt test performed in accordance with the Westminster protocol. S100B assay was conducted by collecting blood samples directly before a tilt test as well as 6 and 24 hours afterwards. Results: There were no differences between patients and controls in S100B levels at baseline and after 6 and 24 hours. Conclusions: The results of the study do not confirm the hypothesis that during syncope in adolescents, the brain tissue becomes damaged, which would be indicated by elevated serum S100B protein level. This research project requires continuation, and further analyses should be conducted taking into account various types of syncope, particularly the cardioinhibitory one, during which cardiac asystole of 3–15 seconds (or even longer) is observed.

Keywords: syncope, S100B protein, presyncope, adolescent