Borrelia burgdorferi (the aetiological factor in Lyme disease) and the tick-borne encephalitis virus are two of the pathogens transmitted by ticks in Poland, which are an important cause of central nervous system infections. According to the data of the National Institute of Hygiene, a total of 13,866 cases of Lyme disease and 196 cases of tick-borne encephalitis were reported in 2014. The highest incidence of Lyme disease is observed in summer in the north-eastern part of the country. The disease may manifest with skin, motor, cardiovascular and neural symptoms. A history of exposure to ticks is important information for determining the aetiology of meningitis. An early diagnosis and effective treatment of neuroinfection reduces the risk of permanent complications. The presented case illustrates the need to include Lyme disease in the differential diagnosis of central nervous system infections.